Posts Tagged 'health'

Dying to get thin

By Harry van Versendaal

Jessica Villerius knows a thing or two about control. Having struggled with anorexia nervosa for about 10 years, the 29-year-old filmmaker from the Netherlands will tell you that the concept is central to understanding the demonic workings of this eating disorder. Starving yourself to death, she says, can give you a sense of control when other parts of your life are going wrong or simply seem too hard to deal with.

Anorexia has the highest mortality rate of any mental illness. Only about 40 percent fully recover. Jessica is one of those – and she has taken her victory a step further, by making a documentary that aims to inform people about this lethal disease, while exposing the “war in the head” of the patients.

Her powerful 60-minute film “Facing Anorexia” (Vel over Probleem), which went as far as to prompt a change in Dutch state clinics’ treatment of the condition, is showing at the 2nd Ippokratis International Health Film Festival on Kos, at the Orpheas Municipal Theater, on Friday September 3, at 9 p.m. For more information, visit http://www.healthfilmfestival.gr.

What made you shoot this documentary?

I wanted to show the world the truth about this “sniper”-disease. It infiltrates your body at first (the urge to be thin) but becomes part of your mind in the end. It is so dangerous, because at that point it’s really difficult to get yourself together and recover. Your state of mind — after a long period of not eating and torturing your body — is so unhealthy, that you really need help from outside to recover. I wanted to show that this is indeed a deadly disease, and also very importantly, that it’s not a matter of choice. You simply don’t choose to have anorexia. It’s awful and torturing — something you would not wish for your worst enemy.

I have read that you are a former anorexia patient. Did making this documentary involve facing up to past demons or did the experience actually help you in making the movie?

Yes, I did a lot of catching up with old demons, something that I wasn’t really prepared for. I thought I had buried my grief. But watching the girls — I always call them “my” girls — suffer and struggle really opened up some old wounds. But in the end it was all worth it.

What are the main myths and misconceptions surrounding this disease?

Three things: that it is a choice, that it is about eating and that it is impossible to fully recover. All not true.

Are you in favor of legal measures such as banning too-skinny models from the catwalks, censoring photoshopped ads and closing down pro-anorexia websites?

No. I’m not one of those people who think that you can get ill by looking at pictures. Of course, young girls should be taught that they are beautiful just as they are, but let’s stay real: We also have to watch our kids not getting overweight. There is a middle ground. Closing down pro-ana sites is not the answer: Those kids will find each other anyway. An answer to that could be more information about the danger. Sounds corny but by shutting down those sites we do not solve the problem. You cannot get anorexia by just looking at the sites, you can get more in trouble by watching them. We should monitor these girls and offer them the right professional help.

Can media stereotypes actually incite anorexia or do they simply reflect and encourage an existing cause or trend?

I think they only reflect and encourage. Anorexia nervosa is a disease that is – partly — determined by genes.

A number of experts and former anorexia patients say that underneath the well-recorded psychological, biological and environmental reasons behind the disease, most of the causes can be traced to issues of control: Adolescent girls with poor self-esteem relish the sense of control that dieting gives them and refuse to stop. What is your opinion?

Totally true. It’s not about eating, calories or being thin. It is all about control. The only thing we have control over and is visible for the outside world, so that they can see your statement, is your weight and appearance. That’s it. It’s a way to show yourself and others that you are extremely unpleased with yourself or a situation.

Is there a turning point when anorexia sufferers actually realize that their psychological condition has become a physical one?

It’s the other way around. The first notable change is physical. The second is psychological. And that one is much more difficult to solve. But you have to worry about the first one first. Because if your body is not cooperating, your mind will eventually also let you down. And then… you loose. You need to get your mind straight in order to recover. When someone with anorexia decides not to die from this disease, she will recover. Most anorexics are extremely wilful and strong.

How easy was it for you to communicate with the patients interviewed in your film, given that they refuse to accept they have a problem?

Very easy. We speak the same language and it was simply impossible for them to lie to me – which is what they did to their parents and doctors.

Did the girls featuring in the documentary actually watch the film? How did they respond to it?

Yes, of course. I went up to them personally to watch it. It was very difficult for them, as they cannot look at their own bodies, let alone on screen. That’s why I have tremendous respect for these girls. They put their own sorrow aside to help others and that’s why I truly love them.

What has the overall response to your film been so far? Are you working on a new project?

It was amazing. It was in all newspapers, magazines and television shows in the Netherlands. It has been sold to eight countries now because it shows a pure look on anorexia. Our health system has been adjusted after the film.

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Orgasm Inc.

By Harry van Versendaal

Sales of Viagra, the famous blue pill used to treat male impotence, exceeded $460 million worldwide last year. Imagine how much money could be made from producing a pill for the other half of the globe’s population: women. It’s no surprise that the world’s pharmaceutical companies are locked in a race to come up with a pink Viagra.

Liz Canner joined the race in 2002. That was when the 42-year-old filmmaker from Vermont, in the USA, was recruited by Vivus, a small pharmaceutical company based in California. Her job was to edit erotic videos for women used as test subjects in the development of an “orgasm cream” designed to cure something called “female sexual dysfunction.” In the process, she discovered that “sexual dysfunction” was a catchall term with little scientific value. But there was little point in creating the drug unless the industry first created the condition. As a medical researcher says in the film: “We’ve come up with the drug. Now we have to come up with the disease.”

The fruit of her nine-year research, a 78-minute documentary called “Orgasm Inc,” exposes efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to medicate female sexual desire – from cosmetic vaginal surgery to Dr Stuart Meloy’s push-button orgasmatron – putting women’s health at risk for profit.

“Orgasm Inc” won the Best Feature award at the Vermont International Film Festival and Best Feature Documentary award at the Southeast New England Film Festival, while The Independent magazine last year named Canner one of the top 10 independent filmmakers to watch. The film will be screened at the Orpheas open-air cinema on Kos on Friday, September 3, at 8.50 p.m.

Canner spoke to Athens Plus about the industry of female pleasure.

How did you get involved in this project?

After over a decade of producing documentaries on human rights issues such as genocide, police brutality and world poverty, the violent images from my movies were giving me nightmares and making me depressed about the state of humanity. In order to change the script in my head, I had decided my next project would be about pleasure; specifically, the history of the science of female pleasure.

Then, strangely, while I was in the middle of shooting the movie, I was offered a job editing erotic videos for a pharmaceutical company that was developing an orgasm cream for women. The videos were to be watched by women during the clinical trial of their new drug. I accepted the job and gained permission to film my employers for my own documentary. I thought the experience would give me access to the secretive world of the pharmaceutical industry and insight into the latest scientific thinking about women and pleasure.

I did not set out to create an expose but what I uncovered at work compelled me to keep filming and investigating. This insider perspective allows the film to scrutinize the culture within the pharmaceutical industry, which has been perverted to place the drive for profit above our health. So much for pleasure…

How easy was it to make this film? What were the main obstacles you had to overcome?

It is not easy to make a documentary about the secretive pharmaceutical industry and the media’s collusion with it. It has been quite stressful.

You spent nine years on this project. Has it given you a new perspective on the issue of female orgasm – or lack thereof?

The biggest secret about orgasms is how rarely women actually have them during heterosexual intercourse. One of the women in my film, Charletta, underwent painful surgery to have an orgasmatron device installed in her spine. The only thing that it did was make her leg kick out uncontrollably. Needless to say, it did not work. It turned out that Charletta actually had no trouble climaxing but wanted it to happen during sex with her husband in what she considered a “normal” way. She was thrilled when I told her that most women don’t climax through intercourse alone.

According to Charletta, her idea about what her sex life was supposed to be like came from the movies. In our society, we’re constantly bombarded with images of fabulous sex in the media and the message that we should have orgasms every time. This is just not accurate. Researchers have found that 70 percent of women actually need direct clitoral stimulation in order to climax.

Charletta had been told by the doctor that she had female sexual dysfunction because she was not having orgasms during intercourse. The idea that there’s sexual dysfunction implies that there’s a norm. However, there is nothing that says what functional is. There is no norm — no medical study that says that women should be having five orgasms a month during intercourse or 10 sexual thoughts a day in order to be healthy. So this idea that you can be dysfunctional is problematic. If you create something that makes it appear that there is a function that women should be living up to, it’s quite dangerous. I think that all of us have complaints. I mean, who doesn’t want to have an orgasm whenever they want?

Your film contradicts past reports that some 43 percent of women suffer from sexual dysfunction. Do you think the figure is arbitrary?

All over the media you hear that a shocking 43 percent of women suffer from female sexual dysfunction. I first heard this statistic when I was working for the pharmaceutical industry in the early 2000s and it surprised me. If so many women had female sexual dysfunction, why didn’t my mother tell me about it and why weren’t my friends talking about it? In fact, I had not even heard of the disease until I took the job with the pharmaceutical industry.

In “Orgasm Inc,” I investigate the history of the 43 percent statistic. It turns out that it was taken from a sociology survey that was conducted in the early ‘90s to find out what people’s sex lives were like. It was never meant to measure the number of women with a disease. Using exaggerated statistics like that manipulates women. It also says to Wall Street that there is a large market for this drug.

Do you think this is a case of disease mongering, as it were, i.e. of the industry trying to convince people there is something wrong with them?

The media talks about female sexual dysfunction as if it always existed — when in fact it was a term that came about in the late 1990s. When Viagra was released, it was such a blockbuster drug for men that companies like Pfizer began to think that there was also a big market for women. The problem was, in order to develop a drug, the FDA required that there be a clearly defined disease. Pfizer and a number of other drug companies sponsored the first meetings on FSD. In the end, 18 of the 19 authors of the definition of the disease had ties to 22 drug companies. This definition is extremely broad: Almost any sexual complaint you have, whatever causes it, will fall into this disease category.

It’s a bizarre disorder, because you have to self-diagnose and you have to be distressed by it. So in other words, if you never felt an iota of sexual desire in your life but it didn’t bother you, you don’t have the disease. If you never had an orgasm but it didn’t bother you, you don’t have the disease. There are real physiological conditions that can cause sexual problems such as hysterectomies and diabetes. I think we can’t ignore that. But for the most part, most of women’s sexual problems are caused by sociocultural conditions like past sexual abuse, relationship problems and stress due to overworking.

Could it be that men are simply looking for ways to make up for their failure to stimulate women?

In the United States, part of the problem is the lack of comprehensive sex education for both men and women. In most sex ed classes, the full genital anatomy is not taught. The clitoris, the most sensitive part of the female body, is not mentioned because it is taboo to talk about pleasure. It was surprising to me how many women and men do not know where the clitoris is.

While shooting your documentary, you witnessed the development of a number of treatments. Did any of them seem to work?

In “Orgasm Inc,” I followed the pharmaceutical industry over a period of nine years as they raced to develop a female Viagra. I kept hoping that they would discover a magic bullet but most of the products currently in clinical trials do not work much better than a placebo (sugar pill) and the side effects for many of them are quite horrific – including breast cancer and cardiovascular problems. Part of the problem is that sexual experience is really complicated and based more on context than biology.

In the press you read: “Men have their Viagra, women want theirs too.” I’d love to know which PR firm came up with this slogan, because it is very effective. The question is what do women need Viagra for? Most of women’s sexual problems are not caused by a physical medical condition but are the result of sociocultural issues. So, I think the only way that most women will be satisfied with their sex lives will be if they can take a product that makes them feel comfortable about their bodies; that ends sexual abuse toward women; that creates equality in the workplace; that creates equality in relationships; that gives women good sex education so they can fully know about the clitoris and about how their bodies function. Why can’t we take a pill like that?

Isn’t there a percentage of women, however small, that do suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction?

The thing about sexual experience is that our sense of satisfaction comes from our expectations. In other words, if women think that they should be having an orgasm every time they have intercourse, then a lot of women are going to believe they have sexual problems. If women think they should have the same libido at 60 as they had at 20, a lot of women are going to think they have a disease.

Right now, there is a cultural shift going on and medicine is changing our expectations but this is not a new phenomenon. In our grandmother’s time, women with low desire were said to suffer from frigidity. During the feminist movement of the 1960s and 70s, the pathologizing and medicalizing of woman’s sexual experience was challenged and resisted. Terms such as nymphomania and frigidity were no longer used. Recently, the clocks have been turned back. Low desire is now called hypoactive sexual desire disorder (a subset of FSD) and there are quite a number of drug companies racing to find a nose spray, pill, cream or patch to cure it. By the way, I find it very curious that they’re working on a desire drug for women. Would anybody think to develop a desire drug for men?

It is important to note that some women do suffer from a real physiological problem when they experience a lowering of their sex drive. Radical hysterectomies and some antidepressants affect libido. However, the majority of women do not suffer from a disease. For many of us, our libidos are influenced by everyday life experiences such as aging, our sense of body image, the health of our relationship, stress, and past sexual encounters.

You have taken your film to many film festivals. What has been the response to your work?

It has been exciting taking “Orgasm Inc” to film festivals. We have had many sold-out shows and received a lot of positive feedback. There have been quite a number of times when women have come up to me in tears after a screening and told me that they learned things about their sexual response that they did not know and they feel relieved to discover they are healthy and normal.

Have you had any reactions from the pharmaceutical companies?

When we showed “Orgasm Inc” at Lincoln Center in New York, a woman who works for the pharmaceutical industry stood up and denounced the film. The audience grew annoyed with her and booed her down. It was quite a tense moment.

Are you working on a new project?

My next project is finally going to be about female pleasure. It is called “The Hidden History of O.”


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